78 State Highway
173 W, Suite #6
to Septic Systems
This is the simplest type of
subsurface disposal system and is common for homes built prior to 1930. The
system consists of a pit that has been constructed out of fieldstone or
concrete block. Openings between the stones or blocks laid on their sides allow
water to flow out of the pit.
Sewage enters the pit through the
building sewer. The liquid level in the pit rises while water is added. The
water level drops as water flows out of the cesspool and into the surrounding
soil. Cesspools are normally quite deep, and the pressure from the water column
within the pit forces water through the openings into the soil.
and effluent disposal system (septic system)
This system uses a
septic tank to receive the sewage from the house. The tank is typically
constructed of concrete; however, older systems may have a steel tank. The
septic tank has an inlet opening and outlet opening near the top of the tank.
The liquid level does not vary as in a cesspool.
As sewage enters the
tank an inlet baffle directs the inflow towards the bottom of the tank.
Solids settle to the bottom of the tank and form a sludge layer. Grease, soap
and other floatables rise to the surface and form a scum layer. An outlet
baffle extends down into the clear liquid between the sludge and scum
When sewage enters the tank, an
equal volume of water is displaced. This water (septic tank effluent) flows up
through the outlet baffle and out of the tank to a disposal system.
disposal system may include a seepage pit, disposal bed or disposal trenches.
The disposal system allows effluent to seep into the soil and away from the
septic system. A seepage pit is constructed similar to a cesspool in that
openings in a tank or stone lined pit allow effluent to flow out in to the
soil. Disposal beds and disposal trenches use a distribution box or pressurized
manifold to evenly proportion the effluent amongst perforated laterals that
allow effluent to flow out of the system and into the surrounding soil.
gray water system
Some homes may have a
separate disposal system to accommodate wastewater from clothes washers, sinks
or hot tubs. Typically, gray water is discharged directly to seepage pits or
dry wells; however, some gray water systems may have a septic tank installed
Advanced technologies including peat moss treatment,
aerated treatment and drip irrigation disposal have emerged as viable
alternatives to mitigate failing septic systems on lots where site constraints
can not be overcome by conventional methods. These new systems offer excellent
treatment and may be appropriate solutions on some projects. Bayer-Risse
Engineering, Inc. has designed and permitted numerous alternative systems in
the central New Jersey area.
Contact us by phone or for a discussion of your needs.